Syllabus – Mains /

Philosophy

PAPER‐I

History and Problems of Philosophy

1. Plato and Aristotle : Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.

2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz); Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.

3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) : Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.

4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God.

5. Hegel : Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism.

6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein : Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Sying and Showing.

7. Logical Positivism : Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

8. Later Wittgenstein : Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.

9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sarte, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the-world and Temporality.

11. Quine and Strawson : Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

12. Carvaka : Theory of Knowlegde; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.

13. Jainism : Theory of Reality; Saptabhanginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

14. Schools of Buddhism : Prat Ityasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada.

15. Nyaya—Vaiesesika : Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

16. Samkhya; Prakrit; Purusa; Causation; Liberation.

17. Yoga; Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

18. Mimamsa: Theory of Knowlegde.

19. Schools of Vedanta : Brahman; Isvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avida; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda.

20. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

PAPER‐II

Socio‐Political Philosophy

1. Social and Political ldeals : Equality, Justice, Liberty.

2. Sovereignty : Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.

3. Individual and State : Rights; Duties and Accountability.

4. Forms of Government : Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.

5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism.

6. Humanism; Secularism; Multi-culturalism.

7. Crime and Punishment : Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.

8. Development and Social Progress.

9. Gender Discrimination : Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowerment.

10. Caste Discrimination : Gandhi and Ambedkar

Philosophy of Religion

1. Notions of God : Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).

2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).

3. Problem of Evil.

4. Soul : Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.

5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.

6. Religious Experience : Nature and Object (Indian and Western).

7. Religion without God.

8. Religion and Morality.

9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.

10. Nature of Religious Language : Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non-cognitive.

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