Syllabus – Mains /

Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science


  1. Animal Nutrition :
    1. Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon—nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.
    2. Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein inter-relationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
    3. Major and trace minerals—Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fatsoluble and water—soluble vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.
    4. Feed additives—methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like harmones and antibiotics—latest concepts.
    5. Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology and feed processing. Anti-nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality control. Digestibility trials—direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.
    6. Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.
    7. Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.
    8. Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.
  2. Animal Physiology :
    1. Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health and disease.
    2. Blood constituents.—Properties and functions-blood cell formation—Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic disorders—anti-coagulants—blood groups—Blood volume—Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
    3. Circulation.—Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency of heart—effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressuer and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary and pulmonary
      circulation, Blood-Brain barrier Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds.
    4. Respiration.—Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases-neural control of respiration-Chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
    5. Excretion.—Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance : physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio-chemical test for urinary dysfunction.
    6. Endocrine glands.—Functional disorders—their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion—hormonal receptors-classification and function.
    7. Growth and Animal Production.—Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
    8. Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion.—Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and Female reproductive organs, their components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.
    9. Environmental Physiology.—Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of
      adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal
      behaviour, climatology—various parameters and their importance. Animal ecology.
      Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production.
Combined Geo Scientist Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination-2021 on 17.07.2021 to 18.07.2021 all over India - Download e-Admit Card
NDA Result NDA NA Examination, (I) 2021 held on 18th April, 2021, Result Released

UPSC IAS IPS Interview Venue – Office of the Union Public Service Commission at Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi-110069

Download e-Admit card-Civil Service IAS/IPS Preliminary and Main exam e-Admit card can be downloaded from the website

Candidates must write the papers in their own hand-Mobile Phones Banned-Communication to the Commission

Civil Service IAS/IPS Preliminary exam Fee is Rs.100/-
Civil Service IAS/IPS Main Exam Fee is Rs.200/-


Civil Services Examination will consist of two successive stages-Preliminary-Main-Interview

Paper I General Studies ( Compulsory ) – 100 Questions

Objective Type – multiple choice questions – 200 Marks ( 2 Hours duration )

Civil Service Vacancies for the year 2021 is expected to be 712-Posts included in Civil Service Exam

Optional Subject Papers I & II-Agriculture-Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science-Anthropology-Botany-Chemistry-Civil Engineering

Preliminary Examination-Paper I-Current events-History of India-INM-Geography-Polity-Economic and Social Development-Environmental ecology-General Science-Paper II-CSAT

Nationality-Age Limits-Minimum Educational Qualification-Number of attempts-Restricted Candidates-

Indian Civil Service Preliminary Exam Date – 27th June, 2021 rescheduled to 10th October, 2021

Online Application can be filled from 4th March, 2021 to 24th March, 2021