Syllabus /

Mains Hydrogeology Paper III

Stage-II Mains (Descriptive Type)
Hydrogeology Paper III

Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater

Origin of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept, geologic formations as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater table mapping and piezometric nests; porosity, void ratio, effective porosity and representative porosity range; primary and secondary porosities; groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins; springs. Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics Groundwater flow concepts; Darcy’s Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water flow rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic conductivity and ranges in representative rocks; Bernoulli equation; determination of hydraulic conductivity in field and laboratory; concept of groundwater flow through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer thickness.

Section C. Water wells and groundwater levels

Unidirectional and radial flow to a well (steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries; methods for constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells, pumping test, slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in groundwater levels; stream flow and groundwater flows; groundwater level fluctuations; land subsidence; impact of global climate change on groundwater.

Section D. Groundwater exploration

Surface investigation of groundwater- geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity and magnetic methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity logging, spontaneous potential logging, radiation logging.

Section E. Groundwater quality and management

Groundwater composition, units of expression, mass-balance calculations; rock-water interaction (chemical equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions and cation/anion exchanges), graphic representation of chemical data; groundwater hardness, microorganisms in groundwater; water quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues due to urbanization; solid and liquid waste disposal and plume migration models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater; concepts of artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin
investigations and management practices.

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