Syllabus /

Mains Geology Paper II

Stage-II Mains (Descriptive Type)
Geology : Paper-II

Section A. Mineralogy

Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; concept of unit cell and Bravais lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination polyhedra; crystal imperfections-defects, twinning and zoning; polymorphism, pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of minerals- double refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, sign of elongation, interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel group.

Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology

Chemical composition and characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere; geochemical cycles; meteorites-types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements; fractionation of elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient (compatible and incompatible elements), Nernst-Berthelot partition coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and activity composition relation (Roult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation; REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral  stability. Half-life and decay equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassium-argon, rubidiumstrontium, uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry of carbon, oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite chemical dating.

Section C. Igneous petrology

Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of igneous textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary (albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopsideanorthite) and ternary (diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsterite-anorthite and nephelinekalsilite-silica) phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, boninites, anorthosites and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and large igneous provinces of India.

Section D. Metamorphic petrology

Limits and physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock composition) of metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies series, geothermal gradients and tectonics of orogenic belts; structures, micro-structures and textures of regional and contact metamorphic rocks; representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams); equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb’s free energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase rule and mineralogical phase rule in multi-component system; Claussius-Clapeyron equation and slopes of metamorphic reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluid-rock interactions; charnockite problem, formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic setting.

Section E. Geodynamics

Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp, Vs and density; seismic and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and nonNewtonian liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, sea floor spreading; gravity and magnetic anomalies of ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and their origin; plate tectonics- types of plate boundaries and their inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust.

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