Civil Service Exam Mains – IAS Exam Mains 2014 Syllabus for Psychology Paper I - Paper II
Paper – I
Foundations of Psychology
1. Introduction :
- Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.
2. Methods of Psychology :
- Types of research : Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research : Survey, observation, case – study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non – experimental design, Quasi – experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.
3. Research Methods :
- Major steps in Psychological research ( problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing ) Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collection ( interview, observation, questionnaire ); Research designs ( ex – post facto and experimental ); Application of statistical technique ( t – test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis ); Item response theory.
4. Development of Human Behaviour :
- Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development – Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well – being across major stages of the life span.
5. Sensation, Attention and Perception :
- Sensation : concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal – detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization – influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.
6. Learning :
- Concept and theories of learning ( Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models ); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability learning, self – instructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning.
7. Memory :
- Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory : The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting : decay, interference and retrieval failure : Metamemory; Amnesia : Anterograde and retrograde.
8. Thinking and Problem Solving :
- Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment; Recent trends.
9. Motivation and Emotion :
- Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.
10. Intelligence and Aptitude :
- Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence – Spearman, Thurstone, Gullford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
11. Personality :
- Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality ( psychoanalytical, socio – cultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches ); Measurement of personality ( projective tests, pencil – paper test ); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.
12. Attitudes, Values and Interests :
- Definition of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of attribution; Recent trends.
13. Language and Communication :
- Human language – Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development – Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication – effective communication training.
14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology :
- Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness – sleep – wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic / drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception Simulation studies.