Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam – History – Paper II
Paper – I
1. Sources :
Archaeological Sources :
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments
Literary Sources :
Indigenous : Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
Foreign Accounts : Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre – history and Proto – history :
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering ( paleolithic and mesolithic ); Beginning of agriculture ( neolithic and chalcolithic ).
3. Indus Valley Civilization :
Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures :
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period :
Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period : Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas :
Formation of States ( Mahajanapada ) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire :
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
8. Post – Mauryan Period ( Indo – Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas ) :
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India :
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas :
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during Gupta Era :
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects.
Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History :
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200 :
Polity : Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs.
- The Cholas : administration, village economy and society.
- “Indian Feudalism”.
- Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
- Trade and commerce.
- Society : the status of the Brahman and the new social order.
- Condition of women.
- Indian science and technology.
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750 – 1200 :
- Philosophy : Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma – Mimansa.
- Religion : Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism.
- Literature : Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India.
- Art and Architecture : Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.
15. The Thirteenth Century :
- Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate : The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success.
- Economic, social and cultural consequences.
- Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
- Consolidation : The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.
16. The Fourteenth Century :
- “The Khalji Revolution”.
- Alauddin Khalji : Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures.
- Muhammad Tughluq : Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
- Firuz Tughluq : Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries :
- Society : composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
- Culture : Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
- Economy : Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non – agricultural production, trade and commerce.
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy :
- Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids.
- The Vijayanagra Empire.
- Mughal Empire, First phase : Babur and Humayun.
- The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.
- Portuguese Colonial enterprise.
- Bhakti and Sufi Movements.
19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture :
- Regional cultural specificities.
- Literary traditions.
- Provincial architecture.
- Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
20. Akbar :
- Conquests and consolidation of the Empire.
- Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems.
- Rajput policy.
- Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
- Court patronage of art and technology.
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century :
- Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
- The Empire and the Zamindars
- Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
- Nature of the Mughal State
- Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
- The Ahom Kingdom
- Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries :
- Population, agricultural production, craft production.
- Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution.
- Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems.
- Condition of peasants, condition of women.
- Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.
23. Culture in the Mughal Empire :
- Persian histories and other literature.
- Hindi and other religious literature.
- Mughal architecture.
- Mughal painting.
- Provincial architecture and painting.
- Classical music.
- Science and technology.
24. The Eighteenth Century :
- Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
- The regional principalities : Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
- Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
- The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
- Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat :1761.
- State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest.