Civil Service Exam Mains – IAS Exam Mains 2016 Syllabus for Anthropology Paper I – Paper II
Paper – I
1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
- Social – cultural Anthropology.
- Biological Anthropology.
- Archaeological Anthropology.
- Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
- Biological and cultural factors in human evolution.
- Theories of Organic Evolution ( Pre – Darwinian, Darwinian and Post – Darwinian ).
- Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology ( Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution ).
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; ( Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :
- Plio – pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa – Australopithecines.
- Homo erectus : Africa ( Paranthropus ), Europe ( Homo erectus heidelbergensis ), Asia ( Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis ).
- Neanderthal Man – La – Chapelle – aux – saints ( Classical type ), Mt. Carmel ( Progressive type ).
- Rhodesian man.
- Homo sapiens – Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
- Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
- Cultural Evolution – Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
- Copper – Bronze Age
- Iron Age
2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis – à – vis cultural Relativism.
2.2 The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.
2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage ( endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo ); Types of marriage ( monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage ). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations ( preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive ); Marriage payments ( bride wealth and dowry ).
2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family ( from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession ); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent ( Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal ); Forms of descent groups ( lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred ); Kinship terminology ( descriptive and classificatory ); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
3. Economic organization : Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange ( reciprocity, redistribution and market ), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
4. Political organization and Social Control : Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.
5. Religion : Anthropological approaches to the study of religion ( evolutionary, psychological and functional ); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies ( animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism ); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico – religious functionaries ( priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch ).
6. Anthropological Theories :
- Classical evolutionism ( Tylor, Morgan and Frazer )
- Historical particularism ( Boas ); Diffusionism ( British, German and American )
- Functionalism ( Malinowski ); Structural – functionlism ( Radcliffe – Brown )
- Structuralism ( L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach )
- Culture and personality ( Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois ).
- Neo – evolutionism ( Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service )
- Cultural materialism ( Harris )
- Symbolic and interpretive theories ( Turner, Schneider and Geertz )
- Cognitive theories ( Tyler, Conklin )
- Post – modernism in anthropology
7. Culture, language and communication : Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non – verbal communication; social context of language use.
8. Research methods in anthropology :
- Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
- Distinction between technique, method and methodology
Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life – history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
- Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics – Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in man – family study ( pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co – twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo – type analysis ), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man – family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub -lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy – Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non – consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
- Numerical and structural aberrations ( disorders ).
- Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter ( XXY ), Turner ( XO ), Super female ( XXX ), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
- Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri – du – chat syndromes.
- Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non – metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker - ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes.
Physiological characteristics – Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio – economic groups.
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio – cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non – genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses : hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non – infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
10. Concept of human growth and development : stages of growth – pre – natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio – economic.
Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
11.2 Demographic theories – biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio – ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
12. Applications of Anthropology : Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.