Civil Service Exam Mains – IAS Exam Mains 2016 Syllabus for Geography Paper I - Paper II
Paper – I
Principles of Geography
Physical Geography :
1. Geomorphology :
Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ;
Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
2. Climatology :
Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability.
Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography :
Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources : biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sea – level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
4. Biogeography :
Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
5. Environmental Geography :
Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
Human Geography :
1. Perspectives in Human Geography :
Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
2. Economic Geography :
World economic development :
measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth;
World agriculture :
typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine : causes, effects and remedies;
World industries : locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
3.Population and Settlement Geography :
Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over – under – and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well – being and quality of life; Population as social capital.
Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements;
Urban morphology : Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
5.Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography :
Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.